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Knee Joint: 

Ligaments and Articular Surfaces

This illustration is an observational study created from an anatomical specimen in Grant's Museum (University of Toronto) as part of the gross anatomy course in the Biomedical Communications program. Multiple anatomical atlases were consulted to idealize the 90 year old specimen that served as primary reference. This piece aims to communicate the ligaments and articular surfaces of the human knee joint in flexion.

Clients: Prof. Dave Mazierski

Audience: undergraduate students

Format: print (textbook)

Medium: Adobe Photoshop, Adobe Illustrator

Date: January 2018

Process work

This piece began as an illustration of the tibiofemoral joint and associated ligaments; the fibula was included to show the distal attachment of the lateral collateral ligament. An initial sketch of this joint was drafted from observation of a formalin-preserved specimen in Grant's Museum. After some consideration, I decided to illustrate the entire knee joint, and I created a second iteration of the sketch, which included the patella and associated ligaments


Upon completion of a satisfactory sketch, I vectorized the drawing in Illustrator and rendered in Photoshop. Rendering was refined based on feedback from Prof. Mazierski and in consultation with multiple anatomical atlas references. Particular attention was given to the texture of the articular surfaces and the relationship of articular surfaces and bone. This process of refinement lead to the final product shown at the top of the page.


1. Agur, A. M. R., & Dalley, A. F. (2009). Grant’s Atlas of Anatomy (12th ed.). Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

2. Hansen, J. T. (2010). Netter’s Clinical Anatomy (2nd ed.). Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: Saunders.

3. Schuenke, M., Schulte, E., & Schumacher, U. (2010). Atlas of Anatomy: General Anatomy and Musculoskeletal System. (L. M. Ross & E. D. Lamperti, Eds.). New York: Thieme.

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